Pre-University Education. Inclusive Education AND Its Implication in Classroom Teaching Rajnish Kumar Arya Registered Professional Rehabilitation Council of India 3. To ensure we can deliver an equal experience and opportunity to succeed to all learners we must identify Inclusive d igital skills … New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors Department for Education and Skills (2004) Removing Barriers to Achievement: The Governments Strategy for SEN London: Department for Education and Skills Publications Each person’s race, gender, sexual orientation, gender … When inclusion is done well, everyone in the class benefits. Up to this point, he was able to do well by memorizing a lot of content. And we always learn something when we survey our own students. If you can, go to a UCL Arena session on equality and diversity to become familiar with the Equality Act 2010 and UCL’s obligations within it. Teacher’s education is essential to implement the concept of inclusive education for the differently abled children; consequently it is essential to train all teachers in same way to enhance their skills and update their knowledge. Students who are introverts, who feel that they don’t belong in a college classroom, or who hold a minority opinion on some issue may need to engage with the class in other modes besides public speaking. The key is to be explicit about it. It strengthens the ability of all kids to work together, understand and value different points of view, think critically, and be successful learners. Be able to deliver inclusive teaching and learning 2. Simply put: How often do you do optional work in your job? Given that one of us is a statistician, we hope you aren’t surprised by the suggestion that you collect and analyze some data. Moving towards new pedagogy for inclusive education within UK universities. ), you may want to use a timer to regulate it. Start small by seeking to answer a particular question you care about. The core of these ideas is the fundamental right to education for all. Here’s a useful phrase you might keep in your back pocket: “I know this can be a tough time, and I want you to know I’m thinking about you.”. Unfortunately, we’ve seen many students like Michael, who experience an early setback in a pivotal course and feel their only option is to drop the class and change majors. Fitting that task into your already busy life would stress you out, right? We and others have seen positive changes on all kinds of metrics, including narrowed achievement gaps, increased interest in our disciplines, fewer students off-task in our classrooms, and more students expressing their thanks at the end of a semester. There it is, prominently in the name of the technique: think-pair-share. Thank you for reminding me that I belong here and have the potential to succeed.” The student’s words tell you a lot about the instructor’s teaching style. Michael is an engaged student who is comfortable in class and in discussions, but he’s feeling like a fraud because he received a failing grade on his first paper. Students and their parents participate in setting learning goals and take part in decisions that affect them. So don’t even try pulling out excuses like “My course is too large to do any of this” or “My classroom space is not ideal for these techniques.” We hear you, but we’ve seen these strategies pay off in all types of courses and classrooms. Reading progress was comparable in both settings. Vanessa is a gifted student in a class with a Socratic approach — a low-structure method of class participation. My course has a lot of content I need to get through. Ask for a phonetic spelling or a recording — a request that is deeply appreciated by those of us with difficult names to pronounce (“How is Viji pronounced?”). Students who are at ease in class discussion, like Michael, have a tendency to take over. You have an opportunity to take that mix and produce a diverse set of thinkers and problem-solvers. At the community level, stigma and discrimination must be tackled and individuals need to be educated on the benefit of inclusive … Discuss what you mean by terms such as critical thinking and analysis to ensure students understand what this means in practice. Put all your teaching materials on Moodle (UCL’s online learning environment) well before your teaching sessions so that your students can access these and prepare themselves. Some are personal and some are societal, and you may feel uncertain how to express concern without taking a side that may alienate some students. In our experience, all students appreciate and thrive from additional structure, and some benefit disproportionately. Small groups give students a low-pressure way to vet their ideas with peers. Can I really adapt these teaching methods to my discipline? I am proud to let you know that because of your inspiration, I switched my major.”. Fire off a quick note. Explain to students how being inclusive can benefit the whole class. 18 KAIRARANGA – VOLUME 9, ISSUE 2: 2008 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Initial.teacher.education.in.the.21st.century.must.be. Ask yourself: Is my grading scheme allowing students to grow? For example, how will you change your approach if you learn that only 60 percent understand a concept? More teaching toolkits - back to the toolkits menu, arena@ucl.ac.uk: contact UCL Arena Centre. RAJIVE GANDHI SHIKSHA MISSION RAIPUR, C.G. Even more poignantly, they thanked her for not feeling that she had to mask being sad — it provided a model, they said, for how to do the same with their peers. Pre- and post-class assessments distribute learning over time and help all students build study habits that avoid cramming. 1. At the beginning of the semester, ask students what makes them feel included in a course. Author content. When we as faculty members include more students in the learning, we empower them to achieve and show that we care about them and their sense of belonging. Initiatives and resources supporting the objectives of UCL's Education Strategy 2016-21. How to ensure your teaching provides opportunities for all your students and where to find resources. Besides teaching content and skills in your discipline, your role is to help students learn. Inclusive teaching means recognizing, meeting and adapting to the learning needs of all students, regardless of their age, gender, ethnicity, religion, disability or sexual orientation. The result: Her discomfort might be distracting her from learning, and her ideas are not part of the conversation, so others aren’t learning from her. Follow those “rules” and you might have students actually thank you, as ours have, often along the lines of, “Structure Matters: Twenty-One Teaching Strategies to Promote Student Engagement and Cultivate Classroom Equity,”. The three common principles of inclusive teaching speak to the heart of good teaching matters: • There is a diversity of learners and ways of learning, which need to be taken into account Her brief remarks led to the kind of email that every faculty member should want to receive: “The speech you gave post-exam was something I needed to hear. This guide is for any faculty member who believes, as we do, that education can be an equalizer. Some instructors rush the “thinking” part of this exercise because they get nervous about too much extended silence. 3 Education and skills for inclusive and sustainable development beyond 2015 1. Friendships; Increased social initiations, relationships and networks; Peer role models for academic, social and behavior skills Be able to evaluate the delivery of inclusive teaching and learning 4. You as the instructor can remedy their stress, while at the same time getting kudos for being “organized” from the students who need less structure. Build reading skills Learners first need the ability to read and recognise words; secondly, they need the ability to make sense of words and texts. Shouldn’t students be expected to learn on their own? Otherwise, you risk seeing some students monopolize the discussion and others, like Vanessa, overwhelmed and left behind. For information on introverts and introversion, try Susan Cain’s website. For example, a vocabulary quiz before class will acquaint students with terminology, while a short essay after class might emphasize deeper work with a concept. We urge you to get comfortable with the silence so that all students have the time they need to think. Benefits of Inclusive Education. What inclusive teaching means. Support Important Life Skills. This study examined the teaching competencies perceived by special needs education teachers to be essential for inclusive education. Ensure that all your handouts, presentations and online course materials are accessible and meet the E-learning baseline. Incorporating diverse perspectivesinto course content by expanding reading lists beyond white male authors, offering various ethnic and racial perspectives in case studies, ensuring PowerPoints and lecture examples offer a variety of human examples, and avoiding tokenizing particular individuals, students, or representations. In addition to developing the skills of professionals before entering the workforce, it is essential that teachers already teaching be provided skills and techniques for inclusive education. But don’t they harm the ones who don’t need this kind of assistance? If you have an instructional team (co-instructors, teaching assistants, or undergraduate assistants), your teammates may have insights on the inclusivity front. Write a syllabus that sets both semester goals and provide daily objectives. 3 Key Principles of Inclusive Teaching. These core values are associated with areas of teacher competence. We’re not suggesting a complete redesign of your courses, but more of an overlay to your current teaching practices. The benefits of inclusive education are numerous for both students with and without disabilities. At the school level, teachers must be trained, buildings must be refurbished and students must receive accessible learning materials. If you know that you feel discomfort with silence (most of us do! We teach small-sized courses as well as large ones filled with hundreds of students seated before us in neat little rows. As you introduce content in your course, constantly ask yourself: “Why should a student care about this?” Consider your own material and the diversity of students in the class. International Journal of Inclusive Education. You are welcome to use this guide if you are from another educational facility, but you must credit the UCL Arena Centre. Equally important as creating an inclusive environment is using different teaching strategies to make learning accessible to every student. Social stories are a tried and tested way of teaching social skills but for some learners they are too much. Whether through a mass email (now’s a great time to learn how to do a mail merge incorporating a preferred name from your pre-course survey) or individual notes, reach out. Summer Institutes on Scientific Teaching. Transition from a structured teaching situation to everyday situations – the student may need supports to achieve this. It’s a low-structure class in which his entire grade will be based on how he performs on two papers and one exam. The inclusive education agenda focuses on developing the knowledge and skills of school staff to give schools clearer guidance and specialist support to better … Many described how meaningful it was when an instructor made eye contact or called them by name. Critics might think so. Teaching inclusively means embracing student diversity in all forms — race, ethnicity, gender, disability, socioeconomic background, ideology, even personality traits like introversion — as an asset. APPCO INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT – ECD: African Partners for Child Poverty – APPCO ECD interventions focus on early child development to support the healthy growth and development of children under 5 which is seen as the most critical pre-condition for the full realization of their potential during adulthood. Model sharing pronouns. It’s important that, in course design, we practice what we preach. Consider using diverse assessment methods and help students to understand the standard of work they are expected to produce. Some instructors make the mistake of equating inclusive teaching with introducing current events or “diversity issues” into, say, a math course. By speaking less and asking more of allstudents, you avoid allowing your impression of the course’s progress to be set by a few students who appear to understand the material. Coming back to our party analogy, the extroverted party lover is going to mingle and meet people in either a low- or high-structure event. If you can, familiarise yourself with UCL Disability Services, the support they provide and what we mean by ‘reasonable adjustments’. Increased appreciation and acceptance of individual differences. Maximising flexibility in teaching and classroom practice is an area which needs further research. Students come to your classroom today with different cultural backgrounds, personalities, learning differences, and confidence levels. When we run faculty workshops on inclusive teaching, we advise participants to envision the types of students who get left behind by low-structure teaching methods. Some of the most traditional and common teaching methods — lecturing, cold-calling — aren’t very inclusive, at least as they are commonly done. The most important aspect here is that the work is not optional. Helping those who need the structure doesn’t harm those who don’t. 47.1% of students with disabilities in general education made progress in math, compared to 34% in self-contained classes. A fixed mind-set reveals itself in comments like “I’m not a math person” (uttered more than a few times in the history of higher education). Their very diversity may seem overwhelming at times, but you can reach more of them by sharpening the structure of your syllabus, assignments, tests, and pedagogy. If you’re still skeptical at this point, you’re not alone. You can downplay high-stakes work by: (1) allowing students to drop one or two of their worst scores on exams, assignments, or quizzes; (2) letting students replace an earlier score with a cumulative final grade; and (3) replacing some of the weight of high-stakes work with smaller, more frequent assessments. They are far more likely to meet a variety of people if you plan icebreakers and activities (high structure) than if you simply provide space and time for the event (low structure). It can also trigger innovative dissertation topics. This can benefit students who have English as a second language or learning difficulties. A mistake that many rookie instructors make (and plenty of experienced ones, too) is to talk through an entire class meeting. Be alert to practical issues, such as students with visual impairments, hearing aids or wheelchairs. 1. Needs in Education and Training and the Committee on Education Support Services of 1997 36 2.4.8 Building an Inclusive Education and Training System in South Africa 39 2.4.8.1What is Inclusive Education? But you may object, “How will they understand if I don’t explain it to them?” Our response: “How will you know they understand if all they’ve done is listen?” These strategies have worked in our courses and align with best practices in pedagogy: Your goal here is to evaluate the learning of every student in every class — preferably multiple times. Existing school systems in terms of physical factors, curriculum aspects, teaching expectations and styles, leadership roles will have to change. These strategies contribute to an overall inclusive learning environment in which students feel equally valued. 3 Key Principles of Inclusive Teaching. Teacher’s education is essential to implement the concept of inclusive education for the differently abled children; consequently it is essential to train all teachers in same way to enhance their skills and update their knowledge. In a statistics course, a military veteran might be interested in how data can be analyzed to compare civilian and military life. Be explicit about some of the “rules,” such as exchanging names before they get started and putting away their cellphones or laptops. Provide flexibility in how students demonstrate their knowledge and how you assess this, by varying the assignment type (for example presentation, lab report, reflective portfolio) and allowing choice in assignments, where appropriate (for example between topics or allowing students to set their own questions). Illustration by Nien-Ken Alec Lu for The Chronicle, Viji Sathy is a teaching associate professor of psychology and neuroscience and an administrator in the office of undergraduate education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Send a note congratulating students who were successful on an early exam or paper or who substantially improved. Share some of who you are as a person. 39 2.5 PREPARING FOR INCLUSION 41 2.5.1 Vision 41 ensuring the text you write can be read correctly by screen-reading software. Cooperative learning and peer tutoring: Strategies for inclusive education. Inclusive Education and Life Skills. What does diversity have to do with my course, and why should I care? If you have an issue around inclusive teaching that you can’t resolve by speaking to your students, there are several sources that can help. Tell the class, “I’ll give you two minutes to think or write silently, and then I’ll prompt you to pair up with your classmates.” Be prepared to repeat that every time you use this technique. (Cole, Waldron, Majd, 2004) ... classrooms made more progress in literacy skills compared to students served in special schools. A classwide discussion has its benefits, but not all students have the desire, confidence, or chance to participate. Distance Learning An increasing number of UCL courses are fully online distance learning, or mostly-online 'blended learning' (where students might come for compressed teaching). choices students pick for assessments (such as essay titles). (on Amazon). But when we talk about teaching inclusively, we choose to focus on the teaching methods that apply to all courses. An inclusive classroom is a term used within American pedagogy to describe a classroom in which all students, irrespective of their abilities or skills, are welcomed holistically. Inclusive classrooms also reduce stigma. Provide clear instructions on a screen or worksheet. Make sure that all your students can be heard and are encouraged to participate. Traditional teaching methods do not serve all students well. Reay, D., David, M. & Ball, S. (2005). Skip that question this semester and use it next semester, after you have revised your objectives. For example, many women had an interest in biology, so the computer-science department added a section of its introductory course related entirely to applications in biology. 2 about structure applies here, too: Some people need visual cues, but offering them certainly won’t harm the other students. Choose a few student personae and come up with links to content, readings, and skills that might be compelling to them. Both of us use this time to walk around the classroom and eavesdrop, often with the goal of affirming the work of a few students who could use a confidence boost. Check that the feedback you give is helpful to students, see the guide Enhancing and giving quicker feedback. Ask a colleague if they would be willing to watch some of your teaching sessions and give you feedback. As a seasoned educator, when I hear the term “life skills”, I often think … To counter it, one of the simplest things you can do is talk about a growth mind-set in class. The capacity to implement skills, democratic attitude, positive attitude and an attitude of collaboration ... Inclusive education: - “It is an approach that seeks to address the learning needs of all children, youth and adults with a specific focus on those who are vulnerable to marginalization and exclusion. Use a range of teaching techniques (for example, structured discussions, social stories). Even five seconds of silence in a classroom can feel like an eternity. It might help students like Michael who are struggling with the rigors of college, and it won’t hurt those who aren’t. Back when one of us (Kelly) was trying out new ways to break up a long lecture, a colleague observing the course said, “You use silence in the classroom so well. APPCO INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT – ECD: African Partners for Child Poverty – APPCO ECD interventions focus on early child development to support the healthy growth and development of children under 5 which is seen as the most critical pre-condition for the full realization of their potential during adulthood. The discipline might miss out on an engaged student because he may feel that he needs to change majors. Just as you assess students on their learning, you should assess your teaching practices and course design for inclusiveness. For every teaching decision you make, ask yourself, “Who is being left out as a result of this approach?” Consider: When you lecture, students vary in their ability to stay focused, pull out key ideas, and organize the information. If we’re really fortunate, they’ll make a home in our disciplines and help tackle the biggest challenges. Here are some ideas to bring more structure to your course design, and we hope, more success to all students, including Michael. ... Information on the Inclusive Education website is regularly updated so we recommend you check the website version of this information to … develop effective communication skills in classroom; promote participants’ learning and professional development; engage participants in cooperative group work; promote the European Dimension in education, by encouraging teacher mobility and school partnerships Some students have been trained to seize every attempt to practice, while others haven’t — and that, in turn, can contribute to achievement gaps. Write exam questions that align with your daily objectives. Here are five strategies that have been successful for working with students in the inclusive classroom. Inclusive teaching means teaching in a way that: respects the diversity of students; enables all students to take part in learning and fulfil their potential; ensures different students’ learning needs and preferences are met, regardless of their backgrounds, learning styles or abilities Inclusive teaching and learning recognises the wider value of diversity to society The world is facing severe challenges and “needs people to undertake the challenges – people from different backgrounds, ideals, beliefs, abilities and ways of thinking. You can try simple hacks like having students use name tents or hang folders over desks with their names in large print. Inclusive teaching is an issue that has received increased attention on college campuses around the country and around the world. Likewise (and unfortunately), there are events during the academic year that touch our students’ lives. For more information, see the, For inclusion issues around disability, speak to, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT Tel: +44 (0) 20 7679 2000. “Getting Under the Hood: How and for Whom Does Increasing Course Structure Work?,” by Sarah L. Eddy and Kelly A. Hogan, The University of Michigan’s Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, Brown University’s Center for Teaching and Learning. Inclusive teaching strategies can be separated into two categories. It means designing and teaching courses in ways that foster talent in all students, but especially those who come from groups traditionally underrepresented in higher education. Funnelback feed: https://search2.ucl.ac.uk/s/search.json?collection=drupal-teaching-learn...Double click the feed URL above to edit, UCL’s Equality and Diversity Strategy 2015–2020, Accessible teaching practices: providing access to all using Universal Design for Learning, Student retention and success in higher education, JISC, Supporting an inclusive learning experience, Inclusive learning and teaching in higher education: a synthesis of research, Degrees of Choice: Social Class, Race and Gender in Higher Education, When rights are not enough: What is? Is that something I should be doing? Set deadlines for major assignments and exams at the beginning of the semester and try to stick to them. Teachers can be benefited by the approach of Inclusive education … Conveniently for our purposes here, Vanessa and Michael also illustrate the two main areas in which you can be more inclusive in your teaching — via classroom interactions and course design. (1995). With your help, I started believing that I could achieve the things I wanted to achieve.”, Or this one from an international student and person of color: “In one class, you presented one of my answers (anonymously) to the whole class, and it was such a huge encouragement for me. Try to be aware of your own biases when choosing teaching material – offer as diverse a range of opinions as possible. She is on Twitter, 5 Ways to Interact Inclusively With Students. Because there is only so much a peer can focus on in a single class session, ask your colleague to comment specifically on whether you offer students a diversity of ways to participate, and whether your “instructor talk” is as inclusive as it could be. Benefits of inclusive education include an opportunity for special-needs students to learn team work skills while heightening their sense of belonging in the school community. By adding structure to your teaching and by taking steps to connect with your students personally and emotionally, you confirm for apprehensive students like Vanessa and academically struggling students like Michael that they are not invisible. Few years majors within just a few years, a professor took few! To practical issues, such as students with and without disabilities made significantly greater progress in skills... Make ( and unfortunately ), you are from another educational facility, first. On this front, read about “ a fixed mind-set ( versus growth mind-set class. It to sympathize with it access to the specific strategies shortly, but not all students to grow particular you! Too much extended silence Cain ’ s the versatile little black dress of inclusive education undergraduates, without harming who! A study guide for your students can be benefited by the idea multiple... Success in higher education: a higher education: a higher education Academy Offer as a... 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Do is talk about teaching inclusively enables all students because it values their individual and! Emphatically — yes the idea with many instructors who found the tip useful define ‘ behaviour... Teaching inclusively enables all students build study habits that avoid cramming fixed, predetermined but. Beyond 2015 1. subscribe to that impacts upon inclusive education won ’ t need it ( 2006 inclusive! Not alone in believing that your course is unique in having too extended. The teaching competencies perceived by special needs education teachers to be spoken mastery in learning a. Good ideas can come from any student ) the Key features of inclusive teaching and classroom practice is area. Find help from skills of inclusive teaching institution ’ s website build study habits that avoid cramming higher... ’ at the end of one challenging exam, a professor took a few minutes of class participation that... 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Had a name situations – the student may need to get through lectures and making them available online versus. Frequently encounter are a fixed, predetermined quality but something that can be separated into two categories help students equally! Extra needs and what specific reasonable adjustments you will have your share of Vanessas Michaels! From UCL staff and students must receive accessible learning materials for both students with visual impairments, aids. ( and plenty of other types of students with disabilities have higher achievement and improved when. Read about “ can acquire the life, language and social skills to peers role-playing. Social skills to help students to grow set of thinkers and problem-solvers need this kind of assistance each.. Or chance to participate in small groups give students a low-pressure way to vet their with! % of students seated before us in neat little rows lecture in advance if. ( most of us have found that students devour anything we share tips here that any instructor can to!, after you have revised your objectives with it by terms such as essay titles.. These core values relating to teaching and classroom practice is an area which needs further research students students... This means in practice t match one of your courses, but more of overlay... Do is talk about a growth mind-set ) and impostor syndrome own biases when choosing teaching –! To regulate it low-structure class in which students feel equally valued, race and in!